来源：silkroadpost丝路邮报 编辑：lanisky03 2020-11-18 赞(6)
Had people not lived in Guangzhou for years, they would have perceived quite a few Cantonese as posers for they sometimes mix a number of English words in their daily expressions. But Cantonese should not be blamed since this sort of "Cantonese English" is the result of 300-year cultural accumulation.
The history of Cantonese English goes back to the 16th century. In 1553 during the Ming Dynasty, some Portuguese colonists muscled in Macao and sought to trade with local merchants. They were the first batch of westerners living in China and contributed to the development of Macao-style Portuguese, the earliest language combining Sino-Western cultures. It had long been a common language in trade activities in coastal areas of Guangdong.
In 1715, the British East India Company set up a number of shops and residences in the Thirteen Hongs of Guangzhou. And Cantonese English emerged with the need to communicate with foreigners. Mixed with features of Cantonese, this sort of local English soon became prevalent among British and Chinese merchants living in southern China, especially Guangdong.
外国人眼中的广州帽店。图片来源：《昔日乡情》，澳门市政厅出版，1995年。A hat shop in Guangzhou drawn
“Carei grandi hola?”（你要大个的吗？）
“He no cari China man’s Joss, bap oter Joss.”（他不敬中国的神，他有自己的神。）
Cantonese English was first recorded in a nautical brochure written by George Anson, a British admiral, in 1748. Some sentences close to its original Cantonese pronunciation were also documented by Charles F. Noble, a famous seafarer (his nationality remains unknown), including 'Carei grandi hola? (Do you want the bigger one?)' and 'He no cari China man's Joss, bap oter Joss (He does not revere joss of China, instead, he's got his own joss.)'.
In 1793, George Thomas Staunton, then vice British ambassador to China in the Qing Dynasty, wrote in his diary that most Cantonese merchants were able to speak English. A conclusion can be drawn that there was a close connection between the popularization of English and the development of commerce.
Before the First Opium War (1840-1842), the Qing government's closed-door policy made it difficult for foreigners to learn Chinese. Meanwhile, it was never easy for them to learn Chinese especially without straightaway textbooks, therefore the Chinese people had to learn some English to make the communication possible.
清咸丰年间的英语入门书《英话注解》中的贸易相关词汇。Some vocabularies related to foreign trade recor
Luckily, there were numerous textbooks for Cantonese merchants to familiarize themselves with practical English quickly, such as A Vocabulary of Words in Use among the Red-Haired People , The common language of the Red-haired Foreigners and Devils' Talk, all of which were popular in Guangzhou.
There was a fun fact about the name "Red-Haired People". Based on The ' Fan Kwae' at Canton before Treaty Days:1825-1844 written by William C. Hunter(1812-1891), an American merchant, Cantonese would give "nicknames" to foreigners according to colors of their hair, in which red-haired people meant British.
《红毛通用番话》是广东英语最早的英语词语集，具体编写年代已不可考。The common language of the Red-hai
Although the books were poorly-redacted without phonetic symbols or grammatical explanations, they were quite a treasure for the merchants who had to deal with western businessmen.
1817年至1823年，英籍新教传教士马礼逊在澳门出版第一部汉英对照字典《华英字典》，也是世界第一部英汉-汉英的对照字典，收入汉字4万多个。例如“面包”一词便收录在该字典中：“BREAD, 面头mëen tow; 面包mëen paou.”。
The dilemma had not been changed until the publication of A dictionary of the Chinese language compiled by Robert Morrison, a British missionary during 1817-1823 in Macao. Containing over 40,000 entries with phonetic notations in Cantonese, the dictionary was the first of its kind in the world.
《华英字典》部分内容 Some entries in A dictionary of the Chinese language
Wu Bingjian, a renowned merchant of the Thirteen Hongs, was also a proponent of Cantonese English. It is said that he once exempted a bankrupt American from a vast sum of money, which could be reflected from the illustration below.
伍秉鉴和无力偿还债款的外国商人的对话。The conversation between Wu Bingjian and the foreigner who fai
Also noticeable was that Cantonese English was not something exclusive to bigwigs. According to The Fan-qui in China written by Charles Toogood Downing, a member with the British Royal Medical School, people from all walks of life, even a female boat dweller, could speak Cantonese English back in the 1830s.
道光年间的信函结尾署名处盖有“Kingqua（经官）”的印章。On one of the letters from the reign of Emper
The mid-18th century witnessed the boom of pidgin English (or yangjingbang), another language made up of English and the Shanghai dialect. Once popular in the areas teeming with foreign shops and firms in Shanghai, pidgin English shared some similarities with Cantonese English, such as simple structure and small vocabularies.
In the 1860s, since the Self-Strengthening Movement sprung up in China, the government began to cultivate talents and experts of foreign languages, setting up the School of Combined Learning in Beijing and Guangzhou in 1862 and 1864 respectively, with the mission of training professionals in translation and foreign affairs.
京师同文馆的外教和学生。A foreign teacher and a bunch of students in the School of Combined Learning
As relations between China and foreign countries got closer, the School of Combined Learning in Guangzhou opened French and German departments in 1879 with 10 students each. Japanese as well as Russian departments were also set up afterwards.
广州同文馆第一任英文教习、美国人谭训（中文名）与学生的合影。A photo of the first English instructor
As the first foreign language school and the first modernized school in the city, the School of Combined Learning of Guangzhou advocated the application of knowledge by creating opportunities for students to translate foreign telegrams, documents and books.
The school lasted 38 years and had cultivated a lot of excellent translators in Guangzhou, such as Yang Shu, an official in charge of foreign affairs in government office of the Viceroy of the Two Kwong Provinces in the Qing Dynasty, and Zuo Binglong, China’s consul general in Singapore. They both held posts during the reign of Emperor Guangxu in late Qing Dynasty.
It is estimated that among some 600 translated versions of Bible in China between the late 19th century and the early 20th century, 132 were published in Guangzhou, accounting for 22% of the total and ranking first in the country, which partly reflected the strength of foreign language learning in Guangzhou.
广州洋务翻译，拍摄于1861-1864年。A photo of three translators for foreign affairs in Guangzhou, whic
In a time with little foreign language learning materials, it is fairly praiseworthy for Cantonese people to come up with their own ways to study foreign culture centuries ago. Their ways of English learning, though inapplicable nowadays, marked an indelible chapter in the history of foreign language learning in China.